#3 - Speech acts
There is a clear difference between statements that describe and statements that command. This idea was developed by the british linguist J.L. Austin. He defines this distinction as two separate parts of speech:
- Constatives: They are sentences that describe something as True or False.
- Performatives: They are sentences that denote an action, rather that conveying a message they act upon the world.
These are the rules under which the performatives can be enacted.
They are fairly logical, the performative should be:
- Able to understand
If it doesn´t meet these conditions, then it doesn´t have the power to denote action. But just because a performative meets its conditions and it´s clearly stated, it doesn´t mean that it is implicitly followed.
Speech Acts: When words are actions.
These actions include (but are not limited to):